Bentham’s massive, unfinished Code (1822–32) is the major rete di emittenti of his last years and contains the most important statement of the theory of constitutional democracy which emerges after his well-known `conversion’ sicuro political radicalism in 1809–10. He develops here sopra verso final form the theory and institutions of an ideal representative democracy addressed to `all nations and all governments professing liberal opinions’. This first testo, based on the only testo Bentham himself published, covers chapters I-IX on the electorate, legislature, adjonction minister, and administration.
A critical edition of three of Bentham’s works, Deontology and The Article on Utilitarianism previously unpublished. Together with his An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, they provide a comprehensive picture of Bentham’s psychological and ethical views. This edition, based entirely on manuscripts written by Bentham of by his amanuenses, is equipped with verso full introduction linking the three works. Each work is accompanied by detailed critical and explanatory taccuino.
The four essays by Jeremy Bentham assembled sopra this testo date from the spring and summer of 1822 and are based exclusively on manuscripts, many of which have never before been published. Durante the essays `Economy as Applied esatto Office’, `Identification of Interests’, `Supreme Operative’, and `Constitutional Code Rationale’, Bentham develops the general principles of constitutional law and government which underpin the detailed administrative provisions attrezzi out in Constitutional Code . Sopra adjonction, original and penetrating discussions of such topics as sovereignty, constitutional rule, democratic and monarchical government, public finance, the aptitude and powers of officials, corruption, the influence of public opinion, and the delusive effect of religion and titles of honour, affirm Bentham’s ceto as a political theorist of the first rank.
Bentham’s central concern during the 1810s and 1820s was with the codification of the law. Rejecting both the common law and the historical approach sicuro codification, he argued that a code of law should be based on a rigorous logical analysis of the categories of human action, and that each enactment should be followed by the reasons which justified it. Such an `all-comprehensive’ code containing an `interwoven rationale’ would signal per new eta durante legislation. Once one state had adopted such a code, other states would be obliged sicuro follow its example, and Bentham would become sopra effect ‘legislator of the world’. Bentham attempted to persuade legislative authorities durante the United States of America, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Greece, South and Central America, and elsewhere, puro invite him esatto draft a code of law for them. The production of a methodology for codification ranks as one of Bentham’s outstanding theoretical achievements. Through the materials presented mediante this testo he emerges as verso seminal figure sopra the development of liberalism throughout Europe and America in the early nineteenth century.
Bentham presents the utilitarian case for sexual liberty on the grounds that the gratification of the sexual appetite constituted the purest form of pleasure, durante opposition sicuro the traditional Christian view that the only morally affermisse form of sexual activity was between one man and one woman, within the confines of offers classical Greece and Rome, where insecable peccato same-sex relationships were regarded as normal, as alternative models of sexual morality, condemns the hostile portrayal of homosexuals durante eighteenth-century literature, and calls for the removal of sanctions, whether imposed by religion, law, or public opinion, from all forms of consensual sexual activity, at least mediante so far as practised mediante private. Bentham was, moreover, persuaded by Malthus’s argument that population growth tended esatto outstrip food supply. Mediante these circumstances, non-procreative sexual activity had the additional benefit of not contributing to an increase per the size of the population. Con the course of his tete-a-tete, Bentham expresses forthright views on various aspects of sexuality.